Pigmentation is undesirable dark discolouration of face or body skin. It is a common problem with Indian skin.
Pigmentation can be of the following types:
- Tan: This is uniform pigmentation of sun-exposed parts. These parts like face and hands become darker than rest of the body skin
- Melasma: This is a particular type of pigmentation that involves the cheekbone area of adult women. This happens due to hormones.
- Freckles: These are pigmented brown spots all over the face
- Postinflammatory hyperpigmentation: These are dark spots or patches that occur after acne or any injury like burn or deep peels
- Others: Several other skin conditions cause darkening of the skin.
Pigmentation happens due to increase in melanin and melanocytes in epidermis and dermis layers of skin. Melanocytes are pigment cells usually found in the skin. They produce a pigment called melanin. Melanocytes get activated by sun exposure, injury and under the influence of some hormones. Excess melanin causes darkness and pigmentation.
Treatment of pigmentation:
1. Chemical Peels: Glycolic Acid, Kojic Acid and Retinol based peels reduce the pigmentation. Cosmelan peel and ZO peels are effective for pigmentation.
2. Cosmeceuticals: ZO products and ZO peels are very effective against the most resistant pigmentations and melasma.
3. Microneedling: This works for dermal melasma.
4. Sun protection: Sun protection with the appropriate use of sunscreen and with physical sun protection is an essential part of the treatment of pigmentation.